• Gazali Universitas Madura
  • Zainurrafiqi Universitas Madura



Transactional Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Employee Performance


Leadership is concerned with achieving goals by increasing followers based on implementing a tactical plan. Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior require more attention in the SME context; thus, this study purpose to address this gap, expand the work on employee performance and contribute to the literature with new findings. Based on the line of thought above, this study aims to reveal the most effective leadership styles for the SME sector in Pamekasan and to understand how Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership impact Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Employee Performance. This is expected to ensure employee achievement and organizational development and progress through the evolution of supervision in the SME sector in Pamekasan. This type of research is Explanatory Research. Data collection method trought interviews. The sampling technique used purposive sampling. The number of samples is 200 employee of SMEs in Pamekasan Regency, and uses data analysis, namely the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with AMOS software. The results of this study indicate that Transactional Leadership has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Transformational Leadership has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Citizenship Behavior positive and significant effect on employee performance.


Advani, A. 2015. Impact of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles on Employees’ Performance of Banking Sector in Pakistan. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Administration and Management 15(5): 1–9.

Afriyie, S., J. Du, and A. A. Ibn Musah. 2019. Innovation and Marketing Performance of SME in an Emerging Economy: the Moderating Effect of Transformational Leadership. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research 9: 1-25.

Afsar, B., Y. F. Badir, B. B. Saeed, dan S. Hafeez. 2017. Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Employee’s Entrepreneurial Behavior in Knowledge−Intensive Industries. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 28(2): 307–332.

Al Khajeh, E. H. 2018. Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Performance. Journal of Human Resources Management Research 2018: 1-10.

Allen, S., B. E. Winston, G. R. Tatone, dan H. M. Crowson. 2018. Exploring a Model of Servant Leadership, Empowerment, and Commitment in Nonprofit Organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 29(1): 123-140.

Anderson, J. C. dan D. W. Gerbing. 1988. Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: a Review and Recommended Two Step Approach. Psychological Bullentin 103(3): 411-423.

Asiimwe, J. B., T. Kavoo-Linge, dan D. Sikalieh. 2016. The Relationship between Transactional Leadership Style and SMEs Growth in the Top 100 SMEs in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Science 7(7): 74-81.

Asrar-ul-Haq, M. dan K. P. Kuchinke. 2016. Impact of Leadership Styles on Employees’ Attitude towards Their Leader and Performance: Empirical Evidence from Pakistani Banks. Future Business Journal 2(1): 54-64.

Barnard, C. J. 1938. The Functions of the Executive. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.

Baškarada, S., J. Watson, dan J. Cormarty. 2017. Balancing Transactional and Transformational Leadership. International Journal of Organizational Analysis 25(3): 506-515.

Belawati, F. E., D. Setyadi, dan M. I. Hendri. 2019. Effect of Transformational Leadership Style and Knowledge Management on Organizational Innovation through Empowerment, Member Creativity and Learning Organization. Journal of Arts and Humanities 8(8): 01-16.

Bilginoglu, E. dan U. Yozgat. 2021. The Impact of Sparking Leadership on Creating Work Passion and Job Satisfaction in Organizations - an Empirical Study. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 21(1): 43-58.

Brandt, T., E. K. Laitinen, dan T. Laitinen. 2016. The Effect of Transformational Leadership on the Profitability of Finnish Firms. International Journal of Organizational Analysis 24(1): 81-106.

Caillier, J. G. 2014. Do Transformational Leaders Affect Turnover Intentions and Extra-Role Behaviors through Mission Valence? American Review of Public Administration 46(2): 226-242.

Chandraningtyas, I. 2022. Leadership Style and Effect on Small Medium Enterprises: a Systematic Literature Review. Proceedings of the International Conference of Islamic Economics and Business (ICONIES) 8(1): 387-394.

Chelagat, L. J., P. Chepkwony, dan A. Kemboi. 2015. Effect of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Employee Performance in Banking Sector, Nairobi County, Kenya. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technolog 5(4): 55-61.

Chernyak-Hai, L., L. Bareket-Bojmel, dan M. Margalit. 2023. A Matter of Hope: Perceived Support, Hope, Affective Commitment, and Citizenship Behavior in Organizations. European Management Journal.

Dai, Y. D., Y. Y. Dai, K. Y. Chen, dan H. C. Wu. 2013. Transformational vs Transactional Leadership: Which is better? a Study on Employees of International Tourist Hotels in Taipei City. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 25(5): 760-778.

Deichmann, D. dan D. Stam. 2015. Leveraging Transformational and Transactional Leadership to Cultivate the Generation of Organisation-Focused Ideas. The Leadership Quarterly 26(2): 204-219.

Eliyana, A. dan S. Ma’arif. 2019. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Effect in the Transformational Leadership toward Employee Performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics 25(3): 144–150.

Feranita, N. V., A. Nugraha, dan S. A. Sukoco. 2020. Effect of Transformational and Transactional Leadership on SMEs in Indonesia. Problems and Perspectives in Management 18(3): 415-425.

Fernández-Muñiz, B., J. M. Montes-Peón, dan C. J. Vázquez-Ordás. 2017. The Role of Safety Leadership and Working Conditions in Safety Performance in Process Industries. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 50(Part B): 403-415.

Fernet, C., S. Trépanierb, S. Austin, M. Gagné, dan J. Forest. 2015. Transformational Leadership and Optimal Functioning at Work: on the Mediating Role of Employees’ Perceived Job Characteristics and Motivation. Work and Stress 29(1): 11-31.

Fiaz, M., Q. Su, A. Ikram, dan A. Saqib. 2017. Leadership Styles and Employees’ Motivation: Perspective from an Emerging Economy. The Journal of Developing Areas 51(4): 143-156.

Fornell, C. dan D. F. Larcker. 1981. Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research 18(1): 39-50.

Gao, R., W. H. Murphy, dan R. E. Anderson. 2020. Transformational Leadership Effects on Salespeople’s Attitudes, Striving, and Performance. Journal of Business Research 110: 237-245.

García-Morales V. J., M. M. Jiménez- Barrionuevo, dan L. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez. 2012. Transformational Leadership Influence on Organizational Performance through Organizational Learning and Innovation. Journal of Business Research 65(7): 1040-1050.

Giang, H. T. T. dan L. T. Dung. 2021. Transformational Leadership and Nonfamily Employee Intrapreneurial Behavior in Family-owned Firms: The Mediating Role of Adaptive Culture and Psychological Empowerment. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 42(8): 1185–1205.

Gilmore, P. L., X. Hu, F. Wei, L. E. Tetrick, dan S. J. Zaccaro. 2013. Positive Affectivity Neutralizes Transformational Leadership’s Influence on Creative Performance and Organisational Citizenship Behaviours. Journal of Organizational Behavior 34(8): 1061-1075.

Irjanto, B. dan H. Setiawan. 2016. Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan dan Motivasi terhadap Kinerja Karyawan pada Industri UMKM di Wilayah DI Yogyakarta. Jurnal Maksipreneur: Manajemen, Koperasi, dan Entrepreneurship 5(2): 15-26.

Kark, R., D. Van Dijk, dan D. R. Vashdi. 2018. Motivated or Demotivated to be Creative: The Role of Self-Regulatory Focus in Transformational and Transactional Leadership Processes. Applied Psychology 67(1): 186-224.

Kasraie, S. dan J. Burgess. 2019. Leadership and Performance: The Case of Australian SMEs in the Services Sector. 9th International Conference on Operations and Supply Chain Management, Vietnam: 1-7.

Katz, D. 1964. The Motivational Basis of Organizational Behavior. Behavioral Science 9(2): 131-146.

Kaur, N. dan L. S. Kang. 2021. Person-Organisation Fit, Person-Job Fit and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: An Examination of the Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction. IIMB Management Review 33(4): 347-359.

Kharismasyah, A. Y. dan E. E. T. N. Tata. 2021. Pengaruh Kecerdasan Emosional, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Keterlibatan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Perawat Rsud Majenang. Derivatif: Jurnal Manajemen 15(1): 142-154.

Kim, H. 2014. Transformational leadership, organizational clan culture, organizational affective commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior: a case of South Korea's public sector. Public Organization Review 14(3): 397–417.

Kim, M. dan T. A. Beehr. 2018. Can Empowering Leaders Affect Subordinates’ Well-being and Careers Because They Encourage Subordinates’ Job Crafting Behaviors? Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 25(2): 184-196.

Klein, G. 2023. Transformational and Transactional Leadership, Organizational Support and Environmental Competition Intensity as Antecedents of Intrapreneurial Behaviors. European Research on Management and Business Economics 29(2): 100215.

Klein, G., Z. Shtudiner, dan M. Zwilling. 2021. Why do Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending Plat-forms Fail? the Gap between P2P Lenders’ Preferences and the Platforms’ Intentions. Electronic Commerce Research 23: 709-738.

Kline, R. B. 2016. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, Fourth Edition. The Guilforf Press. New Rork, London.

Koo, B. dan E. S. Lee. 2021. The Taming of Machiavellians: Differentiated Transformational Leadership Effects on Machiavellians’ Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 178(1): 1–18.

Lee, C. C., W. C. Yeh, Z. Yu, dan X. C. Lin. 2023. The Relationships between Leader Emotional Intelligence, Transformational Leadership, and Transactional Leadership and Job Performance: a Mediator Model of Trust. Heliyon 9(8): 1-20.

Liu, Z., C. Chen, H. Cui, dan Y. Hu. 2023. The Relationship between Nurses’ Social Network Degree Centrality and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Multiple Mediating Effects of Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement. Heliyon 9(9): 1-9.

Lubis, M. S. 2015. Pengaruh Iklim Organisasi dan Komitmen Organisasi terhadap Pembentukan Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Karyawan dalam Rangka Peningkatan Kinerja. Jurnal Apresiasi Ekonomi 3(2): 75-84.

Ma, X. dan W. Jiang. 2018. Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, and Employee Creativity in Entrepreneurial Firms. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 54(3): 302–324.

Maharani, V., S. Surachman, S. Sumiati, dan A. Sudiro. 2017. The Effect of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Mediater bu Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment (Study at Islamic Bank in Malang Raya). International Journal of Economic Research 14(21): 213–226.

Majeed, N. dan S. Jamshed. 2021. Heightening Citizenship Behaviours of Academicians through Transformational Leadership: Evidence Based Interventions. Quality & Quantity 57(Suppl 4): 575–606.

Manoppo, V. P. 2020. Transformational Leadership as a Factor that Decreases Turnover Intention: a Mediation of Work Stress and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The TQM Journal 32(6): 1395-1412.

Manzoor, F., L. Wei, M. Nurunnabi, Q. A. Subhan, S. I. A. Shah, dan S. Fallatah. 2019. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Job Performance and CSR as Mediator in SMEs. Sustainability 11(2): 436.

Masa’deh, R. E., J. Al-Henzab, A. Tarhini, dan B. Y. Obeidat. 2018. The Associations among Market Orientation, Technology Orientation, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Organizational Performance. Benchmarking: An International Journal 25(8): 3117-3142.

Meisam, K., M. S. Saif-URK, dan J. Maryam. 2013. The Job Turnover, Job Satisfaction, Ethical Leadership and Organizational Commitment Impact on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour. Journal of Applied Science and Agriculture 8(5): 607-611.

Naqvi, J. A., S. Ullah, dan B. Javed. 2017. Effect of Leadership Styles on Employees’ Innovative Behaviour: The Mediating Role of Employees’ Creativity. European Journal of Business and Management 9(28): 27-37.

Nasra, M. A. dan S. Heilbrunn. 2016. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Arab Educational System in Israel: The Impact of Trust and Job Satisfaction. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 44(3): 380-396.

Ndubisi, N. O., X. A. Zhai, dan K. H. Lai. 2021. Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises and Asia's Sustainable Economic Development. International Journal of Production Economics 233: 107971.

Newman, A., K. Kiazad, dan B. Cooper. 2014. Examining the Cognitive and Affective Trust-Based Mechanisms Underlying the Relationship between Ethical Leadership and Organisational Citizenship: a Case of the Head Leading the Heart? Journal of Business Ethics 123(1): 113-123.

Organ, D. W. 1988. Organisational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington Books. Lexington.

Pagda, Z., S. Bayraktar, dan A. Jimenez. 2021. Exploring Culture and Leadership after 23 Years: a Replication of GLOBE Project in Turkey. Journal of International Management 27(1): 1–17.

Para-González, L., D. Jiménez-Jiménez, dan A. R. Martínez-Lorente. 2018. Exploring the Mediating Effects between Transformational Leadership and Organizational Performance. Employee Relations 40(2): 412-432.

Pigome, H., M. Sapiri, dan T. Abduh. 2019. Pengaruh Kecerdasan Emosional, Komitmen Organisasi dan Organizational Citizenship Behavior Terhadap Kinerja Perawat Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Kabupaten Paniai Propinsi Papua. Indonesian Journal of Business and Management 1(2): 48–58.

Popescu, A. M., A. Deaconu, dan T. Popescu. 2015. Organization's Age and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), Performance Criteria at SMEs Level. Case Study–Bucharest–Ilfov Development Region. Procedia Economics and Finance 22: 645-654.

Qalati, S. A., Z. Zafar, M. Fan, M. L. S. Limón, dan M. B. Khaskheli. 2022. Employee Performance under Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: a Mediated Model. Heliyon 8(11): 1-10.

Quansah, P. E., Y. Zhu, dan M. Guo. 2023. Assessing the Effects of Safety Leadership, Employee Engagement, and Psychological Safety on Safety Performance. Journal of Safety Research 86: 226-244.

Robbins, S. P. dan T. A. Judge. 2015. Perilaku Organisasi. Salemba Empat. Jakarta.

Robbins, S. P. dan T. A. Judge. 2013. Organizational Behavior (15th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. Boston.

Rumijati, A. 2020. The Impact of Transformational and Transactional Leadership on Organizational Performance through Organizational Learning at Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Proceedings of the International Conference on Community Development (ICCD 2020). Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research 477: 64-68.

Samson, A. T. dan O. A. Ilesanmi. 2019. The Relationship between Transactional Leadership, Transformational Leadership and Performance of SMEs in Nigeria. Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research 3(4): 73-85.

Schoemaker, P. J., S. Heaton, dan D. Teece. 2018. Innovation, Dynamic Capabilities, and Leadership. California Management Review 61(1): 15-42.

Shamir, B., R. J. House, dan M. B. Arthur. 2018. The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory. Leadership Now: Reflections on the Legacy of Boas Shamir 9: 9-29.

Shapira-Lishchinsky, O. dan S. Tsemach. 2014. Psychological Empowerment as a Mediator between Teachers’ Perceptions of Authentic Leadership and their Withdrawal and Citizenship Behaviors. Educational Administration Quarterly 50(4): 675-712.

Sims, C., A. Carter, dan A. M. De Peralta. 2020. Do Servant, Transformational, Transactional, and Passive Avoidant Leadership Styles Influence Mentoring Competencies for Faculty? a Study of a Gender Equity Leadership Development Program. Human Resource Development Quarterly 32(1): 55-75.

Suliman, A. dan H. A. Obaidly. 2013. Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the Financial Service Sector: the Case of the UAE. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration 5(2): 115-134.

Tian, H., S. Iqbal, S. Akhtar, S. A. Qalati, F. Anwar, dan M. A. S. Khan. 2020. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Employee Retention: Mediation and Moderation through Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Communication. Frontiers in Psychology 11: e314.

Todd, S. Y. 2003. A Causal Model Depicting the Influence of Selected Task and Employee Variables on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Dissertation. The Florida State University. USA.

Torlak, N. G. dan C. Kuzey. 2019. Leadership, Job Satisfaction and Performance Links in Private Education Institutes of Pakistan. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 68(2): 276-295.

Tresna, P. W. 2016. The Influence of Transformational Leadership to Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Job Satisfaction as Mediator Variable (Study about Leadership of the Chair- men at Three Universities in Tasikmalaya). Integrative Business & Economics. 5(2): 295–303.

Wagner, J. A. dan J. R. Hollenbeck. 2020. Organizational Behavior: Securing Competitive Advantage. Routledge. London.

Wang, M., S. J. Armstrong, Y. Li, W. Li, X. Hu, dan X. Zhong. 2023. The Influence of Leader-Follower Cognitive Style Congruence on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and the Mediating Role of Trust. Acta Psychologica 238: 103964.

Yuniarto, P. 2018. Pengaruh Servant Leadership pada Kinerja Karyawan: Peran Mediasi Employee Engagement dan Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) (Studi pada Karyawan PT. Asuransi Jiwa Inhealth Indonesia Wilayah Kerja Jakarta-Bogor-Depok-Tangerang-Bekasi). Tesis. Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta.