PROFESIONALISME, MOTIVASI BERPRESTASI, KOMITMEN ORGANISASI DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP INTENSI BERWIRAUSAHA

Didit Darmawan

Sari

Tujuan dari penelitian ini, yaitu untuk menganalisis dan mengetahui pengaruh profesionalisme, motivasi berprestasi, komitmen organisasi terhadap intensi berwirausaha karyawan. Populasi pada penelitian ini, yaitu karyawan yang bekerja di departemen keuangan. Responden pada penelitian ini ada 100 responden yang ada di beberapa perusahaan di kota Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Gresik, Mojokerto dan Malang yang diambil berdasarkan teknik purposive sampling. Alat analisis yang digunakan, yaitu regresi linear berganda dengan program SPSS versi 25. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1) profesionalisme berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap intensi berwirausaha karyawan; (2) motivasi berprestasi berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap intensi berwirausaha karyawan; komitmen organisasi berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap intensi berwirausaha karyawan.

Kata Kunci

Profesionalisme, Motivasi Berprestasi, Komitmen Organisasi, Intensi Berwirausaha

Teks Lengkap:

PDF

Referensi

Ajzen, I. 1991. “The Theory of Planned Behaviour.” Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 50(2): 179-211.

Altinay, L., Madanoglu, M., Daniele, dan R. Lashley, C. 2012. “The Influence of Family Tradition and Psychological Traits on Entrepreneurial Intention.” International Journal of Hospitality Management 31(2): 489-499.

Assor, A., Kaplan, H., dan Roth, G. 2002. “Choice is Good, but Relevance is Excellent: Autonomy-Enhancing and Suppressing Teacher Behaviors Pre- dicting Students' Engagement in school- work.” British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72: 261-278.

Atkinson, J. W. and Feather, N. T. 1966. A Theory of Achievement Motivation. Wiley. New York.

Ayeni, C. O., dan Phopoola, S. O. 2007. “Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo state.” Nigeria, Library Philosophy and Practice: 366–376.

Azhar, A., Javaid, A., Rehman, M., dan Hyder, A. 2010. “Entrepreneurial Intentions Among Business Students in Pakistan.” Journal of Business Systems, Governance dan Ethics 5(2): 13–21.

B´echard, J. P., dan Gr´egoire, D. 2005. “Entrepreneurship Education Research Revisited: The Case of Higher Education.” Academy of Management Learning dan Education 4(1): 22-43.

Babb, E. M., dan Babb, S. V. 1992. “Psycho- logical Traits of Rural Entrepreneurs”. The Journal of Socio-Economics 21: 353–362

Baluku, M. B, Matagi Leonsio, E. Bantu dan K. Otto. 2009. “The Impact of Autinimy on the Relationship Betweeen Mentoring and Entrepreneurial Intentions Among Youth in Germany, Kenya and Uganda.” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Reserach 25(2): 170-192.

Becker G. 1962. “Investment in Human Capital: a theoretical analysis.” Journal of Political Economy 70): 9–44.

Biegge, M. O., dan Hunt, Y. B. 1980. “Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Theories of Motivation from an Attributional Perspective.” Educational Psychology Review, 12(1): 1-14.

Bird, B. dan Jelinek, M. 1988. “The Operation of Entrepreneurial Intentions.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 13: 21–29.

Boyt, T. E., Lusch, R. F., dan Naylor, G. 2001. “The Role of Professionalism in Determining Job Satisfaction in Professional Services: a study of marketing researchers.” Journal of Service Research 3(4): 321-330.

Brockhaus, R. H. 1982. Psychology of the Entrepreneur. In D. L. Sexton

Brockhaus, R. H., dan Horwitz, P. S. 1986. “The Psychology of the Entrepreneur. In D. Sexton dan R. L. Smilor (Eds.), The art and science of entrepreneurship (39-57). England Cliffs, N.J; Prentice Hall.

Bruno, A. V., dan Tyebjee, T.,T. 1982. “The Environment of Entrepreneurship.” Academy of Management Journal. 23(3): 509-520.

Burrage, M., Torstendahl, R. 1990. “Professions in Theory and History: Rethinking the Study of the Professions, Sage Publications, London. Business Management 24: 1–8.

Buttner, H., dan Moore, D. 1997. “Women’s Organizational Exodus to Entrepreneur- ship; Self-Reported Motivations and Correlates with Success.” Journal of Small Business Management 35(1): 34 -46.

Bygrave, W., dan Hofer, C. 1991. “Theorizing about Entrepreneurship.” Entrepreneur- ship Theory and Practice 16(2): 13-22.

Caught, K., dan Shadur. 2000. “The Measurement Artifact in the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire.” Psychological Reports 87: 777–788.

Chabaud, D., and J. Ngijol. 2004. “The Recognition of Market Opportunities by Entrepreneurs: Towards a Constructivist Perspective.” In 17th Annual Research Symposium on Marketing and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Illinois.

Clarysse, B., Tartari, V., dan Salter, A. 2011. “The Impact of Entrepreneurial Capacity, Experience and Organizational Support on Academic Entrepreneurship.” Research Policy 40(8): 1084-1093.

Darmawan, didit. 2016. “Pengaruh Keterliba- tan Kerja dan Sikap profesionalisme Terhadap Intensi Berwirausaha Karya- wan.” Global 1(1): 22-29.

Dave, P. N. dan Anand, C. L. 1979. Correlates of Achievement: a trend report, in M. B. Buch (Ed.). Second survey of research in education, SERD, Baroda.

Deci, Edward L. dan M. Ryan. 2000. “Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being Richard.” Psychological Association 55(1): 68-78.

Delmar, F., dan Davidsson, P. 2000. “Where do They Come From? Prevalence and Characteristics of Nascent Entrepreneurs.” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 12(1): 1-23.

DÍaz-GarcÍa, M.C, Jimenez-Moreno, J. 2006. “Entrepreneurial intention: The role of Gender.” International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 6(3): 261-283.

Dickson, P. H., Solomon, G. T. and Weaver, K.M. 2008. “Entrepreneurial Selection and Success: does education matter?.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 15(2): 239-258.

Dinis, A., Ferreira, J., Paco, Arminda., Raposo, Mario., dan Rodrigues, R.G. 2013. “Psychological Characteristics and Entre- preneurial Intentions among Secondary Students”. Education and Training 55(8-9): 763-780.

Dubini, P. 1989. “The influence of Motivations and Environment on Business Start-Ups: Some Hints for Public Policies.” Journal of Business Venturing 1(11-26): 7-22.

Eckhardt, J. T. dan Shane, S. A. 2003. “Opportunities and Entrepreneurship.” Journal of Management 29(3): 333-349.

Epstein, R. M., dan Hundert, E. M. 2002. “Defining and Assessing Professional Competence.” Journal of the American Medical Association 287(2): 226-235.

Eslami, J., dan Gharakhani, D. 2012. “Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction.” ARPN Journal of Science and Technology 2(2): 85–91.

Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., dan Lassa-Clerc, N. 2006. “Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneur- ship Education Programmes: a new methodology.” Journal of European Industrial Training 30(9): 701–720.

Feinberg, A. 1984. “Inside the Entrepreneur.” Venture 6(5): 80-85.

Ferreira, J. J., Raposo, A., dan Paço, A. 2012. “A Model of Entrepreneurial Intention: An Application of the Psychological and Behavioral Approaches.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 19(3): 424–440.

Fiorito, J., Bozeman, D. P., Young, A., dan Meurs, J. A. 2007. “Organizational Commitment, Human Resource Practices, and Organisational Characteristics.” Journal of Managerial Issues 19(2): 186–207.

Gbadamosi, L. dan Nwosu C. 2011. Organizational Politics, Turnover Intention and Organizational Commitment as Predictors of Employees’ Efficiency and Effectiveness in Academia.

Ghasemi, F., Rastegar, A., Jahromi, R. G., dan Marvdashti, R. R. 2011. “The Relationship Between Creativity and Achievement Motivation with High school Students' Entrepreneurship.” Social and Behavioral Sciences 30:1291-1296.

Gunlu, E., Aksarayli, M., dan Percin, N. S. 2009. “Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Hotel Managers in Turkey.” International Journal of Contem- porary Hospitality Management 22(5): 693–717.

Helmreich, R. L., dan Spence, J. T. 1978. “The Work and Family Orientation Question- naire: An objective instrument to assess components of achievement motivation and attitudes toward family and career.” Journal Supplement Abstract Service, Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8:35.

Hisrich, R. D., and Brush, C. 1986. Women and Minority Entrepreneurs: A Comparative Analysis. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Ed. John

Holland, J. L. 1985. Making vocational choices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hoyle, E. 1975. “Professionality, Professiona- lism and Control in Teaching. In V. HOUGHTON et al. (eds) Management in Education: the Management of Organisations and Individuals, Ward Lock Educational in association with Open University Press. London.

Jemielniak, D. 2005. “Kultura: Zawody i profesje”, in: Prace i Materiały ISM (Instytut Studiów Międzynarodowych), No. 32, O ficyna Wydawnicza SGH, Warszawa.

Kanter, R. M. 1989. Careers and the Wealth of Nations: A Macro-Perspective on the Structure and Implications of Career forms. In M. Arthur, D. Hall, B. Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 506-522.

Keat, O. Y., Selvarajah, C., dan Meyer, D. 2011. “Inclination Towards Entre- preneurship Among University Students: An Empirical Study of Malaysian University Students.” International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2: 4.

Kickul, J., dan Zaper, J. 2000. “Untying the knot: Do Personal and Organizational Determinants Influence Entrepreneurial Intentions?.” Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship. 15(3): 57-77.

Koh, H. C. 1996. “Testing Hypotheses of Entrepreneurial Characteristics: A study of Hong Kong MBA Students.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 11(3): 1225.

Kolveried, L. 1996. “Organizational Employment Versus Self-Employment: reasons for career choice intentions.” Entrepreneurship Theory dan Practice 20(3): 23-31.

Krueger, N. F. dan Brazeal, D. V. 1994. “Entrepreneurial Potential and Potential Entrepreneurs.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 18(3): 91–104.

Krueger, N. F. 1993. “Entrepreneurial Inten- tions: Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour.” Entrepreneurship dan Regional Development 5(4): 315–330.

Lee A.G., Beaver H. A., Boldt H.C., Olson R., Oetting T.A., Abramoff M., Carter K. 2007. “Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Ophthalmology Residency Training Programs.” Surv. Ophthalmol 52(3): 300–314.

Legge, K.1995. Human resource management. London, MacMillan Press. England.

Luca, M. R dan A. M Simo. 2011. “Ente- preneurial Traits and Work Satisfaction.” Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov. 9:58, Special Issue Series VII, Social Sciences Law, No. 1 – 2016.

Madrigal, B., Arechavala, R., dan Madrigal, R. 2012. “Elemprendedor y su capital social: caso el cl´uster del software en jalisco.” Revista Internacional Administraci´on dan Finanzas 5(4): 107-120.

Maes, J., Leroy, H., dan Sels, L. 2014. “Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Intentions: A TPB Multi-Group Analysis at Factor and Indicator Level.” European Mana- gement Journal 32(5): 784–794.

Mathieu, J. E., dan Zajac, D. M. 1990. A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Organi- zational Commitment. Psychological Bulletin 108(2): 171-194.

Matthews, C. H., dan Moser, S. B. 1995. “Family Background and Gender: Implications for Interest in Small Firm Ownership.” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 7(4): 365 377.

Mayer-Haug, K., Read, S., Brinckmann, J., Dew, N., dan Grichnik, D. 2013. “Entre- preneurial Talent and Venture Perfor- mance: A meta-analytic investigation of SMEs.” Research Policy 42(6 -7): 1251–1273.

McClelland, D. C. 1953. The Achievement Motive. Appleton-Century-Crofts. New York.

McClelland, D. C. 1961. The Achieving Society. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, NY.

McGee, Andrew and Peter McGee. 2016. "Search, Effort, and Locus of Control." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 126: 89-101.

Mendol, P. C., dan Marcus. 2015. “A Pattern Analysis of Students' Achievement Goals.” Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4): 582-590.

Meyer, J. P., dan Allen, N. J. 1987. Organi zational Commitment: Toward a Threecomponent Model. London: The University of Western Ontario, Department of Psychology.

Meyer J, Becker T dan Van Dick R. 2006. “Social Identities and Commitments at Work: Toward an Integrative Model”, Journal of Organizational Behavior 27: 665-683.

Meyer, J. P., dan Herscovitch, L. 2001. “Commitment in the Workplace: Toward a General Model.” Human Resource Management Review 11(3): 299-326.

Miller, G. A. 2003. “The Cognitive Revolution: A historical perspective.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(3): 141–144.

Mitton, D. G. 1989. “The Complete Entre- preneur”. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 13: 9-19.

Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., dan Steers, R. M. 1982. Employee-Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover. Academic Press. New York, NY.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., dan Porter, L. W. 1979. “The Measurement of Organi- zational Commitment.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 14(2): 224-247.

Müller, S. 2008. Encouraging Future Entrepreneurs: The Effect of Entrepreneurship Course Characteristics on Entrepreneurial Intention. University of St.Gallen, St.Gallen

Mumtaz, B. A. K, Munirah, S., dan Halimahton, K. 2012. “The Relationship Between Educational Support and Entrepreneurial Intentions in Malaysian Higher Learning Institution.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 69(24): 2164-2173.

Nanda, R. and J. B. Sorensen. 2006. "Peer Effects and Entrepreneurship." Retrie- ved May 31, 2000.

Okpara, J. O. 2004. “Job satisfaction and organi- zational commitment: Are there differences between American and Nigerian Managers employed in the US MNCs in Nigeria? Academy of Business and Adminis- trative Science, Briarcliffe College, Switzerland.

Pintrich P. R., dan Schunk D. H. 1996. Motivation in Education: Theory, Research and Applications, Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., dan Boulian, P. V. 1974. “Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turn- over Among Psychiatric Technicians.” Journal of Applied Psychology 59(5): 603-609.

Rabideau, S. T. 2005. Eflects of achievement motivation on behavior. Retrieved May 7, 2016, from personality research: http:// www.personalityresearchorg.

Reynolds, P. D., Hay, M., Bygrave, W. D., Camp, S. M. dan Autio, E. 2000. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2000 Exe- cutive Report. Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership. Kansas City.

Riipinen, M. 1994. “Extrinsic Occupational Needs and the Relationship Between Need for Achievement and Locus of Control.” The Journal of Psychology 128(5): 577-88.

Robinson, P. B., Huefner, J. C., dan Hunt, H. K. 1991. “An Attitude Approach to the Prediction of Entrepreneurship.” Entre- preneurship Theory and Practice 15(4): 13-32.

Rodriguez, M. J, Santos, F. J. 2008. “La Actividad Emprendedora de las Mujeres y el Proceso de Creación de Empresas.” Información Comercial Española 841:117-132.

Sandhu, M. S, Sidique, S. F. dan Riaz, S. 2011. “Entrepreneurship Barriers and Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Malaysian Postgraduate Students.” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 17(4): 428-449.

Scherer, R. F., J. S. Adams, S. S. Carley dan F.A. Wiebe. 1989. “Role Model Performance Effects on Development of Entrepreneu- rial Career Preference.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Spring: 53-71.

Schultz, T. W. 1961. “Investment in Human Capital.” The American Economic Review, 51(1): 1-17.

Schumpeter, J. A. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.

Schwens C, Steinmetz H dan Kabst R. 2015. “Disentangling The Effect of Prior Entre- preneurial Exposure on Entrepreneurial Intention.” Journal of Business Research. 68(3): 639–653.

Sénchez, V. B., dan Sahuquillo, C. A. 2012. “Entrepreneurial Behavior: Impact of Motivation Factors on Decision to Create a New Venture.” Investigaciones Europeas a'e Direccio'n y Economia de la Empresa, 18: 132-138.

Serinkan, C., Kaymakçi, K., Arat, G., dan Avcik, C. 2013. “An Empirical Study on Intrapreneurship: In A Service Sector in Turkey.” Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences 89: 715–719.

Shane, S., dan Venkataraman, S. 2000. “The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research.” Academy of Management Review 25(1): 217–226.

Shane, S., Locke, E. A., dan Collins, C. J. 2003. “Entrepreneurial Motivation.” Human Resource Management Review 13(2): 257–279.

Shapero, A., dan Sokol, L. 1982. Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, dan K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72–90). Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs.

Shaver, K.G., dan Scott, L.R. 1991. “Person, Process, Choice: The Psychology of New Venture Creation.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice: 23-45.

Sheldon, M. 1971. “Investments and Involvement as Mechanisma Producing Commit- ment to the Organization.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 16: 142-150.

Shinnar, R.S, Giacomin, O dan Janssen, F. 2012. “Entrepreneurial Perceptions and Intentions: The Role of Gender and Culture.” Entrep Theory Pract. 36: 465–493

Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., dan Al-Laham, A. 2007. “Do Entrepreneurship Programmes Raise Entrepreneurial Intention of Science and Engineering Students? The effect of Learning, Inspiration and Resources.” Journal of Business Venturing 22(4): 566-591.

Sparrow. 1998. Achievement and Motivation, University of Sheffield Management School, UK: 639–663.

Spence, J. T. and Heilmreich, R. L. 1983. Achievement related motives and behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and Achievement Motives. San Francisco: Free Press: 1-67.

Swailes, S. 2003. “Professionalism: Evolution and Measurement.” The Service Industries Journal 23(2): 130-159.

Teoh, H. Y., dan Foo, S. L. 1997. “Moderating effects of Tolerance for Ambiguity and Risk-Taking Propensity on the Role Conflict-Perceived Performance Relationship: evidence from Singaporean Entrepreneurs.” Journal of Business Venturing. 12(1): 67-81.

Thompson, E. R. 2009. “Individual Entre- preneurial Intent: Construct Clarification and Development of an Internationally Reliable Metric.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33(3): 669–694.

Venkataraman, S. 1997. “The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research.” In Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth. JAI Press Inc. 3: 119-138.

Ventura, R, Quero, M. J. 2013. “Factores Explicativos de la Intención de Empren- der en la Mujer.” Aspectos diferenciales en la población universitaria según la variable género.” Cuadernos de Gestión 13(1): 127-149.

Verheul, I., Thurik, R., Grilo, I., dan van der Zwan, P. 2012. “Explaining Preferences and Actual Involvement in Self-Employment: Gender and the Entrepreneurial Personality.” Journal of Economic Psychology 33: 325-341.

Weseley, A. J., dan McEntarffer, R. 2010. Barron’s AP psychology. 4th ed. Barron's Educational Series, Inc. New York.

Wright, P. M., dan Kehoe, R. R. 2007. “Human Resource Practices and Organizational commitment: A Deeper Examination.” Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources 46(1):6.

Wu, S., dan Wu, L. 2008. “The Impact of Higher Education on Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students in China. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 15(4): 752–774.

Yurtkoru, E. S., Acar, P., dan Teraman, B. S. 2014. “Willingness to Take Risk and Entrepreneurial Intention of Uni Students: An Empirical Study Compa- ring Private and State Universities.” Social and Behavioral Sciences 150: 834–840.

Zapkau, F.B., Schwens, C., Steinmetz, H., dan Kabst, R. 2015. “Disentangling the Effect of Prior Entrepreneurial Exposure on Entrepreneurial Intention.” Journal of Business Research 68(3): 639-653.

Refbacks

  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.