DAMPAK LIBERALISASI TARIF IMPOR PADA INVESTASI TEKNOLOGI PERUSAHAAN MANUFAKTUR DI INDONESIA

Diah Ekaningtyas, Vid Adrison

Sari

Secara teori, liberalisasi tarif dapat meningkatkan atau menurunkan investasi teknologi. Liberalisasi tarif akan meningkatkan investasi teknologi karena peningkatan kompetisi mendorong perusahaan untuk bersaing dengan meningkatkan efisiensinya. Akan tetapi ketika kompetisi yang tinggi menurunkan profit perusahaan di dalam negeri, maka insentif perusahaan untuk melakukan investasi teknologi berkurang. Perbedaan tingkat efisiensi (gap teknologi) perusahaan yang menyebabkan renspon perusahaan terhadap liberalisasi tarif berbeda-beda. Ketika gap teknologi perusahaan di dalam negeri dengan frontier kecil maka peningkatan kompetisi mendorong investasi teknologi. Akan tetepi, ketika gap teknologinya besar maka secara teori terdapat dua kemungkinan. Peningkatan kompetisi akan menurunkan atau meningkatkan investasi teknologi bagi perusahaan di dalam negeri dengan gap teknologi yang besar. Indonesia merupakan negara berkembang di mana rata-rata tingkat efisiensinya besar, sehingga di duga gap teknologi perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia dibandingkan frontier-nya besar. Penelitian ini meneliti dampak liberalisasi tarif terhadap investasi teknologi perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia menggunakan metode tobit dengan sample data tahun 2003-2014. Berdasarkan hasil regresi diketahui semakin besar penurunan tarif semakin tinggi investasi teknologi yang dilakukan. Selain itu, diketahui bahwa gap teknologi perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia kecil dibandingkan frontier pada periode 2003-2014.

Kata Kunci

Liberalisasi Tarif; Investasi Teknologi; Manufaktur; Indonesia

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